The term Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is used for diseases that are transferred from one person to another by vaginal, anal or oral sex.
STDs are also known as sexually transmitted infection-STIs or occult diseases (Venereal disease).
This does not mean that STDs are transmitted only by sex. Infection of some of these diseases can also be transmitted through:
•Sharing injectable drug by drug abuse personal.
•Using a needle or shaving blade of a diseased person.
• Breastfeeding to child with infected mother.
•From open wounds or loose skin.
•From needle stick injury to health care workers with infected person’s blood.
Some fact regarding Sexually transmitted diseases /infection :
•According to WHO report :
More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day worldwide .
•Each year, there are an estimated 376 million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis .
In India :
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) rank among the top five conditions for which sexually active adults seek health care in the developing countries.
As per the community based STI/RTI prevalence study (2003), over 6% of the adult population in India suffers from one or the other STI/RTI episode annually.
Diagnosis of Sexually transmitted diseases /infection :
Most STDs cannot be diagnosed based on symptoms. Tests are needed to determine if you have STD.
Doctor can identify STD/STI with taking your history (medical history, sexual history, occupational history) , sign and symptoms, according to lab. Test (RPR test, HIV, HbsAg etc..) , some medical examination (p/v exam, vaginal swab)
You can do STD test in Laboratory after Prescribed by doctors, Although nowadays there are kits available for home inspection but they are not always reliable.
Who are risk group of STD/STI:
Anyone who is sexually active risks some degree of exposure to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Factors that may increase that risk include:
•people who have multiple sex partner:
Multiple sex partner have greater risk for STDs because if any of one is carrier then risk for getting infection.
•young age :
Half of STDs occur in people between the age of 15 to 24 age group.
•commercial sex worker :
Sex worker have more risk to getting infection.
•STD infected people :
If any person who have STDs infection but symptoms are not seen they have greater risk for transmitted infection to another people.
•migrated labour :
Mostly Migrated people have extra marital relationship and this will lead to having infection of STDs.
•Having unprotected sex:
Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner who isn’t wearing a latex condom significantly increases the risk of getting an STI.
Needle sharing spreads many serious infection like :,HIV, Hepatitis B and C, etc..
•alcohol or drug abuse person:
Alcohol or drug abuse person have more risk to get STDs because they often do sex with bar-girls.
Types of STDs/STIs:
There are mainly three types of STDs :
Gonorrhea ( neisseria gonorrhoea)
Chenchroid (heamophilus ducreyi)
HPV (human papilloma virus)
HSV (herpes simplex virus)
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C
Complication of STDs/STIs:
One women having infertility in Every four women.
Cervical cancer :
Human papilloma virus is more responsible for cervical cancer.
In developing countries approximately 5,00.000 cases of cervical cancer and 2,40,000 women are die due to cervical cancer every year.
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
person who have STDs he has 10% more chances to have HIV.
If mother have STDs then child have more prone to getting infection and due to infection neonate or infant have,
Congenital deformity in neonate
Premature birth or intra uterine growth retarded
Low birth child
•every year 4000 neonatal blindness due to untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia infection .
Prevention of STDs/STIs:
There are several ways to reduce your risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Avoid vaginal and anal intercourse with new partners until you have both been tested for STIs. Or used condoms is very effective for prevention of STDs.
Getting vaccinated early, before sexual exposure, is also effective in preventing certain types of STIs.
Gardasil cervical cancer vaccine : This vaccine protects against human papillomavirus (HPV).
Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant) :
helps protect women against cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancer.
There are many types of Vaccines are available to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis C and hepatitis B.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the HPV vaccine for girls and boys ages 11 and 12.
If not fully vaccinated at ages 11 and 12, the CDC recommends that girls and women through age 26 and boys and men through age 26 receive the vaccine.
•avoid using needle sharing drugs.
•avoid to sex with sex worker or multiple sex partner if you want to sex then use safe sex practice like using batericidal condom.
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