Parkinson’s disease 





It is a chronic, progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity and slow movements (bradykinesia). It is associated with degeneration of substantia nigra, basal ganglia and corpus striatum of the brain.
April 11 -world Parkinson’s day. 

Parkinson’s is slowly progressive nervous disorder in which the body loses the control over its muscles.

The nerve cell help control movement and coordination. When nerve cell in the brain don’t produce enough of a brain chemicals, the brain cell dies. The absence of the brain chemical in the nerve cell leads to Parkinson’s disease in which a patient often shakes involuntary and has trouble walking and moving.

Slow loss of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra and dopamine decline in the central nervous system.

Parkinson’s disease is more common in older people, most cases occurs after the age of 50.

Approximately 7 to 10 million people worldwide have Parkinson’s disease
.
Men are 1.5 times more likely to have Parkinson’s disease .

It’s develop gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremors in just one hand.

Sign and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease :

Cardinal features :

Pill rolling tremors of the fingers, arms, and hands that may also affect the chin, legs and trunk. 

Bradykinesia (slowness of movement)

Rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk

Postural instability (impaired balance and coordination).

Other sign and symptoms :

Freezing episode,

Masked face,

Micrographia,

Fatigue,

Kyphotic posture,

Akathisia ,

Dysarthria (slurred speech),

Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing),

Dementia,

Bladder problem,

Sleep problems,

Memory problems,

Hallucination.

Causes of Parkinson’s disease :

 The cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but there are several factors that can cause it, including :
 1.Genes :
 Researchers have identified specific genetic mutations that can cause Parkinson’s disease. However, these are uncommon except for rare cases involving family members affected by Parkinson’s disease.
 2.Environmental :
 The effects of certain toxins or environmental factors may increase the risk of end-stage Parkinson’s disease, but overall they reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
 more research is still needed to identify the factors responsible for Parkinson’s disease.
 What are the Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease?
 Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease include:
 Increasing age :
Parkinson’s disease is rarely found in young people. It usually starts in the middle or end of life and the risk increases with age. The disease usually develops in people 60 years of age or older.

 Heredity :

Having a close relative of you suffer from Parkinson’s disease increases your chances of getting the disease. However, unless many members of your family have the disease, your risk is low.

 Men are more at risk :

 Parkinson’s disease is more likely to develop in men than women.

 Exposure to toxins :

 Continued exposure to herbicides and pesticides can increase your risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease

 How Can Prevent Parkinson’s Disease?

Since the cause of this disease is unknown, its prevention methods are a mystery. However, some research has shown that coffee, tea and caffeine found in Coca-Cola can reduce the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Green tea can also help reduce its risk.

 Some research has shown that regular aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of the disease.


Tonic Brahmi of the mind

 For Parkinson’s, Brahmi is considered a boon. It works like a tonic of the mind. For centuries some physicians in India have been using it as an enhancement of memory. According to a study by the Medical Center of the University of Maryland, Brahmi protects the brain cells by improving blood circulation in the brain. According to another study by Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, the powder of Brahmi seeds is a great cure for Parkinson’s. It claims to remove the disease and protect it from brain damage.

 Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease:

 How is Parkinson’s disease diagnosed ?

 There is currently no specific test for the Parkinson’s disease test. In the nervous system conditions, trained physicians (neurologists) will diagnose the disease based on your medical history, review of your signs and symptoms, and a neurological and physical examination. In addition, your doctor may suggest a test to relieve other conditions, which may be the cause of your symptoms.

 In addition to the tests, doctors can give you the drug ‘carbidopa-levodopa’ for Parkinson’s disease. If taking this drug is a significant improvement, it is often
considered a confirmation of Parkinson’s disease. Adequate dose should be given to see the effect of the drug, as it is not beneficial to give low dose for a day or two. For best reaction the drug should be taken at least one hour before empty stomach.

Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease : 

Parkinson’s Disease Treatment

What is the cure for Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease cannot be cured, but medications can help control your symptoms. In some severe cases, surgery may be advised.

 Your doctor may also recommend lifestyle changes, especially aerobic exercise. In some cases, physical therapy is also very important. It emphasizes balance and stretching.

 1. Drugs

 Medications can help relieve problems related to your gait, activity and vibration by increasing the supply of dopamine in your brain. However, dopamine cannot be given directly, because it cannot enter your brain.

Your doctor may prescribe the following medicines :

 Carbidopa-Levodopa :
 Levodopa is the most effective drug of Parkinson’s disease. It is a natural chemical, which goes into your brain and is converted to dopamine.

 After many years, when your disease progresses, the effects of levodopa medication may not be stable and may be less or more. In addition, you may experience involuntary activities (dyskinesia; Dyskensia) after taking more doses of Levodopa. Your doctor may reduce the dose of your medication or regulate the time taken for your medication to control these effects.

 Dopamine Agonists :
Agonists produce dopamine-like effects in the brain. They are not as effective as levodopa in treating the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. However, their effect lasts for a long time and can be used with levodopa to minimize the effects of levodopa. Some of the side effects of dopamine agonists are similar to levodopa, but they also include hallucinations, swelling, drowsiness and repetitive behaviors – such as gambling.

 MAO-B Inhibitors :
 These monoamines help prevent brain dopamine damage by disrupting abrain enzyme called oxidase B (Mao-B). This enzyme breaks down brain dopamine into small segments. Side effects may include nausea or headache. Taking these medicines with Levodopa increases the risk of hallucinations. Due to severe but rare effects, these drugs are not often used in combination with antidepressants or certain types of neurotics. Consult your doctor before taking any additional medicine with Mao-B inhibitors.

 Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors :
This drug enhances the effect of levodopa therapy by blocking the enzyme that breaks dopamine. Side effects include the risk of involuntary activities (dyskinesia), Which increases mainly due to the effects of high doses of levodopa. Other side effects include diarrhea or side effects caused by overdose of levodopa.

 Anticholinergics :
 These drugs have been used for many years to control the vibrations associated with Parkinson’s disease. However, the minor benefits of these
drugs often do not have any side effects, such as memory loss, confusion, hallucinations, constipation, itching in the mouth and difficulty in urinating.

 Amantadine :
Doctors may suggest Amtadine to provide temporary relief from the symptoms of early-stage Parkinson’s disease. It can also be given with levodopa therapy in the later stages of Parkinson’s disease to control involuntary activities (dyskinesia) induced by carbidopa levodopa. Side effects may include purple spots on the skin, ankle swelling or hallucinations.

 2. Surgical procedures

 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) :
Surgeons implant electrodes into a specific part of your brain. The electrodes are connected to the generator implanted in the chest near your collarbone. They send electrical vibrations to your brain and can reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

 Risks associated with surgery include,
 infection,
stroke or brain hemorrhage.
  Some people experience problems related to the DBS system or experience complications due to stimulation.

 Deep DBS is mostly used for people with high-stage Parkinson’s disease who have unstable reactions to the levodopa drug.

 DBS can continuously improve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and these improvements persist even after several years of the procedure. However, DBS cannot completely prevent the development of Parkinson’s disease