ABG analysis

An Arterial blood Gas analysis is a measure the acidity(ph), Co2 and O2 level. ABG analysis is done through take arterial blood from radial artery or sometimes femoral artery.

Now a days,  lung diseases (asthma, allergies, bronchitis, COPD, etc…)  are increased due to air pollution .

According to research study :

Air pollution  is the fifth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. 

In 2017, air pollution is estimated to have contributed to close to 5 million deaths globally .(approximately 1 in every 10 deaths).

Air pollution causes are 

smoking,

burning of garbage,

bad use of chemical elements and constant smoke emanating from such factories,

increasing use of radioactive elements,

household dust,

use of various toxic smells to give mental-emotional stress to others more than themselves To become fashionable,

to give toxic environment in business,

artificial chemical adulteration in food and the most selfish breath of all humanity Micro endangering such example.

So, Nurses are well aware about ABG analysis. 

Normal ABG(arterial blood Gas)  value:


pH.                           = 7.35 -7.45 

paCO2 (mm Hg)   =  35 -45

HCO3 (mmol/L)   = 21 – 28

paO2 (mm Hg)    = 80 – 100


Respiratory acidosis

pH, paO2  = decreased, 
PaCo2.       =Increased ,
HCO3.       =normal. 

Respiratory alklosis 

pH, paO2 = Increased, 
paCO2      = decreased, 
HCO3.      = normal. 

Metabolic acidosis 

pH          =   decreased, 
paCO2   =   Normal, 
HCO3.   =    decreased. 

Metabolic alklosis 

pH.          = Increased, 
PaCO2.   = normal, 
HCO3      = Increased. 

Examples :

Case 1 :
Measurement of arterial blood Gas shows pH =7.2, paO2 =100 mm Hg,  paCO2 =25 mm Hg,  and HCO3 = -10 mmol /L,  what is your assessment?

That is metabolic acidosis (low HCO3) with respiratory compensation (low CO2).

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